Column: ‘Eisen aan ‘goede’ herkomst bieden kansen’

Dat de coronacrisis een aanjager is voor grote veranderingen, kan niet meer worden ontkend. De crisis duwde ons met de neus op de feiten: voor onze economische ontwikkeling zijn we te afhankelijk geworden van andere landen.

Door die kwetsbaarheid worden we de speelbal van grootmachten als China en wordt uiteindelijk onze manier van leven bedreigd. Met ‘ons’ doel ik niet alleen op Nederland, maar op de hele Europese Unie. Want de afzonderlijke lidstaten zijn te klein om het probleem op te lossen.

Om hierin verandering te brengen, zijn door de Europese Unie veertien cruciale industriële ecosystemen bepaald, variërend van toerisme tot gezondheid en van elektronica tot natuurlijk agrifood. Deze strategische sectoren worden het speerpunt van innovatie, concurrentiekracht en vergroening. Door de coronacrisis heeft het Duitse voorzitterschap agrifood verder op de kaart gezet. De crisis liet zien dat handelsstromen kunnen worden onderbroken en dat het vrije vervoer van mensen en goederen door Europa niet vanzelfsprekendheid is.

Tegelijkertijd wordt de regelgeving steeds complexer. De Green Deal en boer-tot-bordstrategie van de Europese Commissie zullen ingrijpende gevolgen hebben. Dat geldt ook voor nieuwe wetgeving, die in Nederland weinig aandacht kreeg. Onlangs heeft het Europees Parlement met revolutionaire wetgeving ingestemd die bedrijven verplicht de oorsprong na te gaan van grondstoffen en producten. Die moeten een ‘goede’ herkomst hebben.

Fout is als er kinderarbeid aan te pas is gekomen en de winning of de productie onherstelbare milieuschade hebben veroorzaakt. Deze wetgeving moet ook gaan gelden voor bijvoorbeeld Amerikaanse of Chinese bedrijven die toegang willen krijgen tot de interne markt. Dat zorgt ervoor dat de wetgeving een mondiale impact gaat krijgen.

Waar moeten we aan denken? In de periode 2004-2017 zijn bosgebieden ter grootte van tien keer Nederland verloren gegaan om ruimte voor de landbouw te maken. De productie van soja is een grote boosdoener. Binnen de Europese Unie is Nederland daarvan de grootste importeur en dus disproportioneel medeverantwoordelijk voor ontbossing. Bovendien investeert Nederland relatief veel in de veeteelt in Zuid-Amerika.

Oplossingen zijn er zeker. Volgens het Wereld Natuur Fonds moet braakliggende grond in Brazilië worden ingezet voor de landbouw. Als dat gebeurt, zal er tot 2030 geen boom meer hoeven worden gekapt. Bedrijven worden door de nieuwe wetgeving gedwongen dit soort initiatieven direct of indirect te steunen. Dat hier een kans ligt voor Nederland met zijn enorme kennis en innovatievermogen lijkt mij duidelijk.

Dit artikel door Rob de Wijk verscheen voor het eerst in Nieuwe Oogst.

HCSS rapport “Blurred Lines” genoemd door defensie minister Bijleveld

Minister Bijleveld stuurde de Tweede Kamer onlangs het rapport over de naleving van de Algemene Verordening Gegevensbescherming (AVG) door het experimentele Land Information Manoeuvre Centre (LIMC).

In de Aanbiedingsbrief van 7 mei 2021 bij het AVG rapport verwijst zij naar het HCSS rapport “From Blurred Lines to Red Lines: How Countermeasures and Norms Shape Hybrid Conflict”:

Statelijke actoren en terroristische organisaties gebruiken informatie nu al als wapen. Bijvoorbeeld door voordeel te halen uit het verspreiden van valse of onvolledige informatie en daarmee onze manier van leven en denken te beïnvloeden. Met cyber kunnen ook fysieke effecten worden bereikt, zoals het aanvallen of saboteren van vitale sectoren waarvan ook Defensie afhankelijk is. De Defensievisie zegt hierover dat Defensie haar bijdrage moet leveren aan het vergroten van de weerbaarheid van de samenleving hiertegen. Indien nodig moet Defensie ook terug kunnen slaan. Uiteraard moet Defensie zich daarbij houden aan de geldende juridische en ethische kaders. Dit onderscheidt ons van onze tegenstanders.

Zie ook From Blurred Lines to Red Lines, How Countermeasures and Norms Shape Hybrid Conflict, HCSS, september 2020

Webinar: Why does Europe need to care about blue waters?

Organized by the French Embassy in The Netherlands, the discussion will focus on the role of the European Union in the face of growing tensions in the maritime environment and the rise of strategic maritime issues such as control of lines of communication, freedom of access to common spaces and control of resources.

The current health crisis has also reinforced the strategic nature of the global maritime environment. While land borders and air routes were closed in an attempt to curb the spread of COVID19, maritime traffic has become vital for the transport of essential goods for populations and international trade. The debate will try to answer the following questions: What are the prospects for the development of European Defence in its naval dimension as well as other maritime initiatives between European States? What are the approaches of the Dutch, Danish and French authorities in this area? What common development lines are available in order to carry out an efficient and proactive European cooperation in a large-scale maritime environment and to preserve this area of freedom?

Speakers :
1. Admiral Pierre Vandier, Chief of Staff of the French Navy
2. Mr Jens-Otto Horslund, Ambassador of Denmark to The Netherlands and Special Representative for Maritime Security
3. Mr. Han ten Broeke, Director of Political Affairs, HCSS
4. Mr. Frank Bekkers, Director of the Security Programme, HCSS
Please join us for a live and interactive debate on Friday 28 May from 3.30 pm – 5:00 pm!
Seminar organised online on Zoom.

HCSS Digest

HCSS Digest | Week 20

With a long Pentecost weekend ahead, catch up with this week’s HCSS Digest:

  • the global chip shortage
  • the first Dutch military satellite
  • the conflict between Israel and Hamas
  • podcasts, webinars, internships and more!

The Netherlands and the EU are highly dependent on China for certain critical raw materials. Next week, HCSS strategic analyst Irina Patrahau will be speaking on how to overcome this dependence in a KNGMG symposium on critical minerals and metals for new energy – register now!

If the cabinet does not take immediate action to reduce dependence on foreign technology, the Netherlands is in danger of losing its grip on internet security, Rob de Wijk commented in het Financieele Dagblad on the need for digital autonomy.

Join HCSS strategic analyst Dorith Kool on Thursday 17 June, when she will give a presentation on a framework to assess security sector’s potential contribution to stability, during a webinar on Security Sector Reform.

How do we deal with the global chip shortage that, according to manufacturers, will persist for years to come? What are the political consequences? HCSS data scientist Paul Verhagen discussed the issue on BNR Nieuwsradio’s De Wereld.

The Netherlands will launch its first military satellite in June. But what role can we play in space between major powers such as the US, China & Russia? Find out everything you want to know in this episode of BNR’s De Strateeg, featuring HCSS strategic analyst Patrick Bolder and Jeroen Rotteveel, director of ISISpace and SpaceNed.

“We are late, but a modern armed force also need to utilize the space domain,” HCSS analyst Patrick Bolder commented on BNR Nieuwsradio, about the experimental BRIK II nanosatelite of the Royal Air Force that will launch next month.

Rocketman Bolder was also interviewed by Belgian newspaper De Standaard about the Chinese Mars Rover landing.

Rockets of a different sort also dominated the news this month, as the tensions between Israel and Hamas once again escalated. HCSS director of political affairs Han ten Broeke analyzed the conflict on WNL television several times.

Meanwhile on NOS news, strategic analyst Patrick Bolder explained the advanced air defense system Iron Dome, Israel’s self-designed main defense against the hundreds of missiles: although Israel is militarily and technologically superior and has fewer casualties, by firing hundreds of cheap missiles Hamas hopes to overload Israel’s expensive defense system.

HCSS defense specialist Peter Wijninga also commented on the conflict throughout the week on BNR Nieuwsradio, stating: “These are two parties that have to solve it themselves. But a lot of water will have to flow through the Jordan before that happens.” When news of a possible ceasefire appeared, Wijninga analyzed what Hamas and Israel got out of this latest war on BNR De Wereld.

“With their current leaders, reconciliation between the Israelis and the Palestinians seems a long way off, because they need the conflict to secure their own position”, Rob de Wijk lamented in his weekly column for newspaper Trouw.

A new Ottoman Empire, a Turkey that remains a NATO member but on its own terms – or a Turkey that reconciles with its allies? These three scenarios are explored by HCSS strategic analysts Patrick Bolder and Dorith Kool in Carré, the magazine of the Netherlands Officers Association. A more in-depth analysis of Turkey/NATO politics can be found in their snapshot “Turkey’s Recalcitrance and NATO’s Nuisance.

This week, NATO hosted its first hybrid threat symposium. HCSS director of research Tim Sweijs gave a key note speech on “Deterring Hybrid Threats – what do we need?”. Other speakers included Mark Galeotti and David van Weel, Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges.

In preparation for the NATO2021 conference,the NATO Defense College Foundation recommends the book Future NATO: Adapting to New Realities as mandatory reading. The volume examines how the Alliance can adapt to face the challenges of the 21st century. Tim Sweijs contributed the chapter “Maintaining NATO’s Technological Edge”, together with Frans Osinga.

Liz Cheney isn’t exactly one of the most moderate Republicans, but by claiming that the election was fair, she sidelined herself within her own party. HCSS data scientist and expert on US politics Paul Verhagen spoke to VPRO’s Bureau Buitenland about the impact of this on democracy and the course of the Republican Party in the Foreign Office.

By negotiating trade agreements, the EU is setting a standard that, if adopted by other countries, could have far-reaching consequences for China. In their weekly podcast for BNR Nieuwsradio, Arend Jan Boekestijn and Rob de Wijk speak to professor of international economics Steven Brakman about the battle for the Indo-Pacific.

Are you interested in bringing together the world of cyberspace and international relations and national security? Then the HCSS Cyber Program Internship is just the job for you! Don’t wait, and send your application to our internship coordinator Karlijn Velthuis now!

We are proud to announce that the 2021 Luxemburg Outstanding Environmental Peace Prize has been awarded to the Water Peace & Security (WPS) partnership, a collaboration between the Dutch MFA and a consortium of IHE Delft, WRI, Deltares, HCSS, Wetlands International and International Alert, for its work in the field of addressing water-related security risks.

HCSS Cyber Program Internship

Duration of the internship: 6 months 

Work on International Peace and Security in Cyberspace

HCSS’ portfolio is increasingly focusing on policies, international cooperation, competition, and conflict in cyberspace. This includes conceptual and data-driven research of the cyber threat landscape, as well as diplomatic, security, and legal implications of cyberspace in the context of international peace and security. Our main area of emphasis is to bring together the new field of cybersecurity with traditional national security and international relations. For more information about the program, please visit: https://hcss.nl/cyber-security/.

Deadline to send in your application: 25 June 2021

Start date: August 2021

The successful candidate will contribute to the work of HCSS Cyber Policy and Resilience Program focusing on research, public relations, events and strategies. The intern will also provide operational support for the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace (GCSC).

Responsibilities include but are not limited to

  • Conduct and contribute to research, briefings and reports;
  • Track and synthesize trends and developments pertaining to international peace and security in cyberspace;
  • Contribute to the project management of the GCSC;
  • Manage public relations, especially social media and website, and support brand development;
  • Manage program contacts and knowledge;

Requirements

  • Excellent written and oral command of English is a must; proficiency in Dutch or other languages is considered a plus;
  • Preferably a graduate student in International Relations, Law, Security Studies, or Computer Science;
  • Demonstrated interest in international affairs and security, preferably in the cyberspace context, through academic work and/or experience, is preferred;
  • Well organized and strong attention to detail;
  • The successful candidate will need an entrepreneurial ethos and a collegial spirit while also being an effective communicator;
  • Must work well with others and interact professionally with senior/high-level individuals;
  • Experience in PR, graphic design and social media is considered a plus;

Eligibility

  • Availability: the internship is fulltime. Candidates must be able to commit to working 40 hours a week. 
  • Candidates must be authorized to work in the Netherlands.
  • Candidates must be enrolled as a student at a university during the entire internship period.
  • Successful candidates are asked to provide a certificate of good conduct (‘Verklaring Omtrent het Gedrag’), available from the Dutch Ministry of Justice. Candidates residing outside of the Netherlands should provide a certificate from their country of residence. 

What we offer

  • This is a paid internship.
  • The candidate will be given the opportunity to interact with a group of highly notable and experienced international experts working on cybersecurity, and will gain valuable skills, experience, knowledge, and contacts in the international policy community.
  • Small team at The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies that moves at a high pace to support a truly global initiative.

Application Procedure

Please apply only if you are able to start on the above mentioned start date. 

To apply, send the following items to info@hcss.nl under the subject line “Cyber Internship, Last Name

  • A curriculum vitae, including a list of references with contact details
  • A cover letter (one page)
  • Proof of university enrolment, valid for the entire duration of the internship
  • Copy of official transcript of academic grades

Notes regarding the application procedure:

  • Please ensure that your application is complete before sending it in. Providing a list of references with contact details as part of your CV (at least two) is a mandatory requirement- we will not request them at a later stage.
  • The whole application should be written in English including the writing sample.
  • Please apply only if you are available for the above-mentioned start date. HCSS recruits interns all year around; later start dates will be announced in due time. 

HCSS internships attract a large number of outstanding candidates from around the world and are highly competitive. HCSS only considers candidates that submit a complete application and fulfil all eligibility requirements. Successful applicants will be invited for an interview (physical or virtual).

In the interest of the successful candidate’s learning trajectory, the internship will be carried out at the HCSS office in The Hague, insofar as this is feasible given the current travel restrictions related to COVID-19. Potential working arrangements can be discussed during the interview process. 

About the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace

Launched at the 2017 Munich Security Conference, the mission of the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace (GCSC) is to develop proposals for norms and policies to enhance international security and stability and guide responsible state and non-state behavior in cyberspace. The Commission helps to promote mutual awareness and understanding among the various cyberspace communities working on issues related to international cybersecurity.

The Commission was initiated by The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies (HCSS) with the support of the EastWest Institute, the government of the Netherlands, France and Singapore, Microsoft, ISOC and Afilias. The GCSC’s composition mirrors the multi-stakeholder reality of cyberspace by bringing together 28 prominent Commissioners, and four Advisors from all regions and backgrounds. In addition to the Commission body itself, the GCSC is supported by a Research Advisory Group that connects the GCSC to the academic community.

The final GCSC report Advancing Cyberstability was launched at the 2019 Paris Peace Forum by Stef Blok, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Netherlands, Jean-Yves Le Drian, Minister of Europe and Foreign Affairs of France, and David Koh, Chief Executive, Cyber Security Agency of Singapore. This report represents the culmination of the Commission’s work over the last three years, offering a cyberstability framework, principles, norms of behavior, and recommendations for the international community and wider ecosystem.

Following the release, the GCSC members will continue to advocate and engage with their respective communities. Input and feedback from these groups were reflective of interactions with both state and non-state experts and will form the basis of advocating for the report going forward in 2021.

For more information, please visit www.cyberstability.org.

Column: Van zoveel Israëlische en Palestijnse onwil word ik moedeloos

De strijd tussen Hamas en Israël lijkt een rituele oorlog. Om de zoveel jaar barst de strijd los en bombardeert het oppermachtige Israël Gaza, vanwaaruit doe-het-zelf­raketten worden afgevuurd die weinig schade aanrichten.

Elke keer neemt de sympathie toe voor de Palestijnen, die worden bestookt in hun ommuurde enclaves waaruit ontsnappen onmogelijk is. Elke keer wordt Israël van oorlogsmisdaden beschuldigd omdat er zoveel burgers worden geraakt. Elke keer zijn de argumenten hetzelfde: Israël strijdt tegen terroristen; de Palestijnen tegen de Israëlische bezetter die hun vele decennia geleden van hun land heeft verdreven. En elke keer roept Amerika de Israëlische regering tot de orde waarna de strijd weer luwt. Elke keer – tot slot – zetten de partijen na het staakt-het-vuren hun oude politiek voort. Israël breidt zijn nederzettingen uit, Hamas fabriceert nieuwe raketten. Niemand die het gesprek op gang brengt om tot een duurzaam akkoord te komen. Van zoveel onwil word ik moedeloos.

Mondiale vete

Lang heb ik geaarzeld om überhaupt iets over dit conflict te schrijven. Het is zo door en door gepolitiseerd en de posities zijn zo geradicaliseerd dat objectieve duiding onmogelijk is geworden. Dit is naar mijn weten het enige conflict in de wereld waarin je partij moet kiezen en je daarmee onderdeel wordt van een mondiale vete. Als duider kun je niets met dit conflict. Elke partij beroept zich op historische en religieuze rechten, waardoor ­elke oplossing kansloos is.

Door president Trump is die oplossing nog verder weg komen te liggen. Hij verbeterde de relatie tussen Israël en veel Arabische en Noord-Afrikaanse landen, waardoor de kans op escalatie naar een grotere oorlog is afgenomen. Dat is mooi. Maar hierdoor verloor de rest de wereld wel zijn interesse in het conflict en kreegt premier Netan­yahu meer manoeuvreerruimte.

Bovendien gooide Trump olie op het vuur door de Amerikaanse ambassade naar Jeruzalem te verhuizen en Netanyahu toe te staan zijn nederzettingenpolitiek voort te zetten. Inmiddels vrezen de Palestijnen dat zij helemaal uit Jeruzalem worden verdreven. Dit alles zal de situatie alleen maar doen verslechteren. Dan is er een kleine vonk nodig om het conflict weer te laten ­exploderen.

Opkomend nationalisme

De laatste vonk was de inval op 13 april, de eerste dag van de ramadan, door de Israëlische politie in de Al-Aqsa-moskee in Jeruzalem. De Israëlische autoriteiten hadden geen zin in de gebeden die uit de luidsprekers schalden. De autoriteiten verkeken zich op de situatie, vooral omdat ze kennelijk de opkomst van nationalistische sentimenten onder jonge Palestijnen gemist hadden. Dit opkomende nationalisme zal de strijd alleen maar verbetener maken en is een belangrijke voedingsbodem voor een opstand van de Palestijnen die in Israël zelf leven.

Wat nu? De presidenten Gorbatsjov en Reagan besloten in de jaren tachtig een einde aan de Koude Oorlog te maken en waren bereid zelfs de kernwapens af te schaffen. Ze waren tot het inzicht gekomen dat de strijd tussen Oost en West eigenlijk maar onzin was. Als dat inzicht in het Israëlisch-Palestijnse conflict ontstaat, gloort er hoop. Maar dat zal niet met de huidige leiders lukken. Want die hebben het conflict nodig om hun eigen positie veilig te stellen.

Lang heb ik geaarzeld om überhaupt iets over dit conflict te schrijven | Trouw

Rob de Wijk is hoogleraar internationale relaties en veiligheid aan de Universiteit Leiden en oprichter van het Den Haag Centrum voor Strategische Studies (HCSS). Hij schrijft wekelijks over internationale verhoudingen. Lees zijn columns hier terug.

KNGMG Symposium on Critical Minerals and Metals for New Energy

Critical raw materials are essential resources for the construction of technologies such as wind turbines, magnets, solar panels and batteries. This symposium covers the mineral and metal requirements, supply risks and impacts for renewable energy and storage technologies. 

Programme starts at 14:00 on May 27th:
– History of the Mining and Geological Museum of Delft – Michael van der Meer
– Mining’s Role in the Transition to a Clean Energy Future – Prof. dr. Mike Buxton
– Securing Critical Materials for Critical Sectors – Irina Patrahau (HCSS)
– Panel discussion on ‘The Future of Mining Engineering in the Netherlands’ with Prof. dr. Timo Heimovaara (TUD CiTG), Dr Ton Bastein (TNO) & Dr. Georgette Boele (ABN AMRO)
– Premier of ‘Mijnbouwstraat 120’ a short historical documentary

Corona policy will not permit any participants to join the event live. Therefore we will live stream all talks and discussions. The streaming system will permit for interaction with the audience. After registration, you will receive a link to the event several days before the meeting. There is some consolationKNGMG will organize with the Science Center a final farewell tour of the Mijnbouwstraat 120 on July 9, from 16.00 till 20.00; with drinks in the garden, weather and corona permitting.

Webinar: Security Sector Reform as a Strategic Policy Tool: Why business as usual isn’t good enough

The Netherlands Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Defence invite you to a webinar about Security Sector Reform on Thursday 17 June 2021 between 14:00 and 16:00.

This webinar is a cooperative effort of the Netherlands Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Defence. It is supported by HCSS and KVBK. In this webinar, several subject matter experts will present and discuss their views and approaches concerning Security Sector Reform (SSR) as a strategic policy tool.

Is SSR a double-edged sword or can it contribute to conflict prevention and long term stability? Effectively engaging with security sectors requires understanding context-specific challenges and an integrated way of working. How can we incorporate this conflict-sensitive perspective in decision making and response? Is it time to rethink our approach? 

“For years the international community has spent considerable effort to promote stability by reforming and strengthening security sectors in fragile and conflict prone states. These efforts have met with mixed results, however. The international community must therefore find alternative ways to better understand security sectors’ potential contribution to stability.” (HCSS report ‘The Good, the Bad and the Ugly‘, Kool & Sweijs)

Program

14.00   Welcome by the moderator

14.05   Introduction by Foreign Ministry / Ministry of Defence: ‘SSR as a strategic instrument’ (Sonja van der Meer and Martijn Beerthuizen)

14.10   Presentation by HCSS: ‘A framework to assess security sector’s potential contribution to stability’ (Dorith Kool | Read the HCSS report)

14.20   Presentation by Transparancy International-UK: ‘Government Defense Integrity Index, measuring strengths and weaknesses of the defense sector’ (Natalie Hogg | Background info)

14.30   Presentation by DCAF – Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance: ‘An Integrated Security Sector Governance approach for Preventive Efforts and Long Term Goals of Stabilization and Development’ (Shahrazad Chida | Background info)

14.45   Intermezzo

14.50   Case study by 1CMiCO: Casestudy SSR Bosnia and Herzegovina (Rene Kersten)

15.05   Case study by ASSN: ‘Rethinking our approach: an African case study’ (Niagalé Bagayoko | Background info)

15.15   Panel discussion based on questions from the audience (1CMi, HCSS, DCAF, TI and ASSN)

15.45   Key take-aways by Foreign Ministry / Ministry of Defence (Lex Gerts and Lars Walrave)

15.55   Closing remarks by the moderator 

Should you have any questions, please send an e-mail to contact.ssrwebinar@gmail.com

Congres: “Europa Uitgezoomd: Als wereldspeler buitenspel?”, met Rob de Wijk

Op woensdagavond 19 mei 2021 vindt het In Discussio Congres “Europa Uitgezoomd: Als wereldspeler buitenspel?” plaats.

Gedurende de avond zullen prominente sprekers uit politiek, wetenschap en bedrijfsleven samenkomen om te debatteren over de Toekomst van de Europese Unie. Is de Europese Unie een wereldspeler in het geopolitieke spel met Rusland, China en de VS? Of staat Europa buitenspel?

Wie zijn die sprekers dan?

  • Renske Leijten (Tweede Kamerlid SP)
  • Nilüfer Gündoğan (Tweede Kamerlid Volt)
  • Rob de Wijk (Auteur ‘De Slag om Europa’ en hoogleraar internationale betrekkingen)
  • Winand Quaedvlieg (Permanent gedelegeerde VNO-NCW bij de EU)
  • Fabian Amtenbrink (Hoogleraar Europees recht)

Het congres begint om 19.30 uur en eindigt rond 22.15 uur. Iedere minuut van de avond zal professioneel gelivestreamd worden vanuit de voormalige kerk Arminius in hartje Rotterdam en het congres is dan ook volledig online te volgen.

Het evenement is live te volgen via deze Zoom link.

Tim Sweijs delivers key note at NATO Hybrid Threat Symposium

This week, NATO hosts its first Hybrid Threat Symposium. HCSS Director of Research Tim Sweijs will deliver a key note speech on “Deterring Hybrid Threats – what do we need?”. Other speakers at the event include Mark Galeotti and David van Weel, Assistant Secretary General for Emerging Security Challenges.

Tim will draw on his extensive research on deterrence, such as his chapter The Essence of Cross-Domain Deterrence and the HCCS reports Cross Domain Deterrence and Hybrid Conflict and A Framework for Cross-Domain Strategies Against Hybrid Threats.