Conflicts between states have taken on new forms and hybrid operations play an increasingly important role in this volatile environment. Belligerent powers introduce a new model of conflict fought by proxy, across domains, and below the conventional war threshold to advance their foreign policy goals while limiting decisive responsiveness of their victim.
Given these hybrid threats, how should Western states respond? Are there any tools available Western states have that can draw red lines into blurred lines of hybrid conflict?
About this Paper
In 2016 and 2018, both the U.S. and France found their electoral infrastructure under attack from Russian malicious cyber operations. Notably, this included the hacking of the Presidential campaigns of Hilary Clinton and Emmanuel Macron. How should Western governments respond to these attacks? Are there any effective tools they could use to deter such behavior?
This case study details how Western governments used a mix of sanctions, indictments, and diplomatic expulsions to respond to these intrusions, as well as their second-order normative effects. As such, a norm emerged which prohibited the cyberoperations against electoral infrastructure. This case study details how this norm emerged, which actors were key, and the challenges we face today in keeping it alive.
About the Paper Series
This paper is part of a series that argues that the West does have one powerful tool that can help shape hybrid threat actors. That tool is international norms. Norms set international expectations of acceptable state behavior – yardsticks which the international community can leverage when calling out unscrupulous states.
But norms do not develop out of nothing. This report applies the norm lifecycle theory, which analyzes norm development from emergence to cascade and internalization, to five case studies to to better understand the real-life strategies, tools of influence, dilemmas, and trade-offs that empower state-led norm processes. The report not only considers how norms develop, but also what role they play within the counter-hybrid posture of a state, and how they, in conjunction with countermeasures, shape adversarial hybrid behavior.
This report also explores four other case studies on Russian, Chinese, and ISIS hybrid conflict actions. The case studies are published individually as a paper series and compiled in a full report with complete overview of the theoretical underpinnings of norm development and the key insights that emerge from the analysis, as well as the concluding remarks and policy recommendations. The policy recommendations explore ways for the Netherlands and its partners to help promote and enforce norms of restraint beyond classic like-minded groups of states while being cognizant of unintended consequences.
Please find an overview of the other case studies below.