Lithium is key for global decarbonisation and is expected to face the biggest growth in demand for all critical raw materials (CRM) due to the rapid development of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs). Booming demand and the high geographic concentration of lithium mining and processing result in supply vulnerabilities and geopolitical competition for this raw material.
While the lithium-ion battery supply chain will likely remain Chinese-dominated until 2030, a European CRM supply security policy and other global supply diversification policies are picking up. Re-shoring activities create opportunities for Europe to strengthen the resilience of its lithium supply chain and to become more self-sufficient.
This paper by Bryan Bille assesses Europe’s lithium supply vulnerabilities and the key barriers the continent faces to increasing its lithium supply security up to 2030. At the same time, this paper examines opportunities and provides recommendations to make Europe’s lithium supply chain more resilient and diversified in view of its growing battery industry.
This publication is based on independent research conducted by Bryan Bille during his International Political Economy Master program at King’s College London.
Lead Author: Bryan Bille (International Political Economy MA graduate at King’s College London).
Editors: Irina Patrahau, Michel Rademaker, Jeff Amrish Ritoe. Contributor: Alisa Hoenig.
This publication is part of the HCSS Battery Mineral paper series. Previous papers include: